Data Fabric Deep Dive Part 2: What Makes Up a Data Fabric vs. a Data Mesh, and Why it Matters
In Part 1 we established what a Data Fabric and Data Mesh is at a high level. Now let’s take a deeper look at how a Data Fabric and a Data Mesh is actually assembled. To do that, it’s important to first understand the components of both products.
The Data Mesh shifts the focus from centralized data lakes and data warehouses to a distributed architecture, where data is treated as a product and managed by cross-functional, domain-centric teams.
Components of a Data Mesh
The key components of a Data Mesh include:
Data domains: Data domains are organized around specific business areas, functions, or product lines within the organization. Each domain has a dedicated team responsible for managing the associated data products.
Data products: In a Data Mesh, data is treated as a product with a clear purpose, value, and usability for both internal and external consumers. Each data domain is responsible for creating, maintaining, and evolving its own data products, ensuring they meet quality, availability, and performance standards.
Data product owners: Each data domain has a data product owner or data product manager responsible for the overall success of the data products within their domain. They ensure the data products are discoverable, accessible, and meet the needs of consumers.
Self-serve data platform: A self-serve data platform provides tools, services, and infrastructure that enable domain teams to independently manage their data products. This includes capabilities for data ingestion, storage, processing, analytics, and data access.
Data governance and compliance: Data Mesh enforces data governance, quality, and compliance standards across all domains. This includes setting up policies and processes for data cataloging, data lineage, data access control, and data security.
Federated data catalog: A federated data catalog allows users to discover, understand, and access data products from various domains across the organization. The catalog should include metadata, data lineage information, and data quality metrics to help users make informed decisions about using the data.
Cross-domain collaboration: Data Mesh encourages collaboration and knowledge-sharing between domain teams through regular meetings, workshops, and communication channels, enabling teams to learn from each other's experiences and identify opportunities for improvement.
Data observability and monitoring: Data Mesh supports data observability and monitoring practices to ensure the health and performance of data products across all domains. This includes tracking data quality, data freshness, and data availability, as well as setting up alerts and notifications for any issues or anomalies.
Implementing these components and embracing the core principles of Data Mesh enables organizations to build a decentralized, domain-oriented, and self-serve data infrastructure that scales effectively and promotes collaboration and data sharing across the organization.
Components of a Data Fabric
Data Fabric is a framework and sometimes productization of the Modern Data Stack consolidated into one product or integrated framework.
The core components and capabilities of a Data Fabric include:
Data access and virtualization: Data Fabric allows users to access data from multiple sources, such as databases, data warehouses, data lakes, and APIs, as if they were a single, consolidated data source. Data virtualization techniques are often employed to create this unified view without the need for physical data movement or replication.
Data integration: Data Fabric simplifies the process of integrating data from different sources by providing tools and services for data ingestion, transformation, and harmonization. This enables users to combine and analyze data from various sources more efficiently.
Data governance and security: Data Fabric enforces data governance, security, and compliance policies across the organization. It provides mechanisms for data access control, data quality management, data lineage tracking, and data privacy enforcement.
Data cataloging and discovery: Data Fabric includes a data catalog that captures metadata, data lineage, and data quality information for all data assets. This helps users to discover, understand, and access the right data for their needs.
Scalability and adaptability: Data Fabric is designed to be scalable and adaptable to accommodate evolving data needs, technologies, and use cases. It supports the growing volume, variety, and velocity of data while being flexible enough to adapt to new data sources and integration requirements.
Analytics and insights: Data Fabric provides a foundation for advanced analytics and insights by making it easier for users to access, integrate, and analyze data from various sources. This supports data-driven decision-making and innovation across the organization.
A Data Fabric is relevant to building a Data Mesh because it provides the underlying data management and integration framework that enables the Data Mesh's core principles to function effectively.
Here's how a Data Fabric contributes to building a Data Mesh:
Decentralized data management: A Data Fabric enables seamless access, integration, and management of data across various sources and domains. This supports the Data Mesh's decentralized approach by allowing domain teams to work independently while still having access to data from other domains as needed.
Domain-oriented architecture: Data Fabric's ability to provide a unified and consistent view of data across disparate sources supports the Data Mesh's domain-oriented architecture, allowing each domain team to focus on their specific data products while still having the ability to access and share data with other teams.
Self-serve data platform: Data Fabric simplifies data access, integration, and management by abstracting the underlying complexities. This makes it easier for domain teams to access and work with data, promoting the self-serve data platform capabilities emphasized in the Data Mesh paradigm.
Data discoverability: Data Fabric can help improve data discoverability through metadata management, data cataloging, and data lineage capabilities. These features are essential for a Data Mesh, as they enable domain teams to find, understand, and use data from other domains effectively.
Data governance and compliance: Data Fabric provides a foundation for maintaining data governance and compliance within a Data Mesh. It supports data quality, security, and privacy, ensuring that data usage adheres to organizational policies and regulatory requirements.
Scalability and flexibility: Data Fabric's scalable and flexible nature allows it to grow with the organization, supporting the evolving needs of a Data Mesh. It can accommodate new data sources, formats, and integration requirements, ensuring the data infrastructure remains agile and responsive.
By leveraging a Data Fabric, organizations can create a robust, scalable, and efficient data infrastructure that enables domain teams to work independently while still benefiting from shared data resources and insights.
It’s important to note that Data Mesh and Data Fabric are not competing paradigms; rather, they complement each other. Both concepts address different aspects of data management and integration, and when combined, they can create a comprehensive and effective data infrastructure.
Data Mesh is a paradigm that focuses on the organizational and architectural aspects of managing data at scale. It promotes decentralization, domain-oriented architecture, data as a product, and self-serve data platform capabilities. The main goal of Data Mesh is to enable better collaboration, data ownership, and data sharing across different domain teams in large-scale organizations.
Data Fabric, on the other hand, is a technological framework that addresses the challenges of data access, integration, and management across disparate sources. It provides a unified and consistent view of data, making it easier for users to access, analyze, and use data across the organization.
Data Mesh and Data Fabric are complementary concepts that, when combined, can create a robust and efficient data infrastructure that delivers several tangible benefits. Data Fabric enables seamless data access and integration across sources and domains that support the decentralized approach promoted by Data Mesh. In addition, the unified view Data Fabric provides across disparate sources aligns well with the domain-oriented Data Mesh architecture, enabling teams to share and access data from other domains while working independently. Data Fabric simplifies data access, integration, and management while supporting self-serve data platform capabilities emphasized in the Data Mesh paradigm. Finally, Data Fabric can enhance data discoverability, governance, and compliance within a Data Mesh by offering metadata management, cataloging, lineage, and quality features.
In summary, Data Mesh and Data Fabric are complementary concepts that, when combined, can create a robust and efficient data infrastructure. As noted above, Data Mesh focuses on the organizational and architectural aspects, while Data Fabric provides the underlying technological framework for effective data management and integration. By leveraging both paradigms, organizations can build a comprehensive data infrastructure that promotes collaboration, data ownership, and efficient data sharing across domains.
In part three of this blog series, we explore what's required to actually build a Data Fabric and Data Mesh in detail. Then in the final part of this four part series, we will look at how the Data Fabric and Data Mesh might not be as different as you may think and explore a new way of looking at these two frameworks. Spoiler: Prepare to be surprised!